Autor Thema: MIDI MID Dateien  (Gelesen 360 mal)

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MIDI MID Dateien
« am: 29. April 2021, 17:13:16 »
Hier mal die Kürzung / Überarbeitung der Datei vom Markus.
Es wird der Aufbau einer .MID Datei besprochen.

Ich werde versuchen diese Datei hier in der 1. Nachricht zu pflegen.
Los gehts...

Standard MIDI File Format
-------------------------
von....: Dustin Caldwell
gekürzt: Dr. S.W. Stumpferl

Das Standard-MIDI-Format (.MID) ist sehr komples aufgebaut.
Eine Musiksequenz so genau zu beschreiben, dass man sie 1:1 wiedergeben kann
ist schwierig. Trotzdem ist der Aufbau des MIDI-Formates gut nachvollziehbar.

Falls ihr irgendwelche Fehler in diesem Dokument findet, lasst es mich wissen.
Dieses Dokument beschreibt nicht JEDES vorhandene Midi-Format und auch nicht
jedes Midi-Kommando. Es ist nur ein Basisdokument.

1. Übersicht
------------
Eine Midi-Datei (.MID) besteht aus 2 Teilen, Header-Chunks und Track-Chunks.
Eine Midi-Datei enthält EINEN Header-Chunk, der das Dateiformat angibt usw.
und eine bestimmte Anzahl an Track-Chunks.

2. Datei-Header
---------------
Der Header-Chunk befindet sich am Dateianfang und beschreibt die Datei in drei
Formen. Er sieht immer so aus:

  M   T   h   d
&4D &54 &68 &64, &00 &00 &00 &06, &tt &tt &nn &nn &dd &dd

Das ASCII-Äquivalent der ersten 4 Bytes ist "MThd".
Nach dem "MThd" folgt die 4-Byte-Größe des Headers. Dieser Wert beträgt immer:
&00 &00 &00 &06, da der .Mid-Header immer eine größe von sechs Bytes hat.

tt: tt gibt das Dateiformat an. Es gibt drei Formate:
0 - eine Spur
1 - mehrere Spuren, synchron
2 - mehrere Spuren, nicht synchron

- "Eine Spur" ist selbsterklärend - es kommt nur eine Spur im .MID vor.
- "Mehrere Spuren, synchron" heißt, dass alle Spuren synchron gespielt werden,
  in anderen Worten, sie starten alle gleichzeitig.
- "Nicht-synchrone Spuren" müssen nicht unbedingt gleichzeitig starten
  und können absolut asynchron sein.

nn: nn gibt die Anzahl der Tracks in einer MIDI-Datei an.

dd: dd gibt die Anzahl der Delta-time Ticks pro Viertelnote an (dazu später)


3. Der Track-Chunk:
-------------------
Der Rest einer MID-Datei nach dem Header-Chunk besteht aus Track-Chunks.
Jeder Track hat einen Header und enthält so viele MIDI-Kommandos wie nötig.
Der Kopf eines Tracks ähnelt sehr dem Datei-Header:

  M   T   r   k
&4D &54 &72 &6B &xx &xx &xx &xx

Wie der Header besitzen die ersten vier Byte ein ASCII-Äquivalent.
Dieses mal ist es "MTrk".
Die vier Bytes nach "MTrk" beschreibt die Länge des Tracks (-Header) in Bytes.

Danach kommen Midi-Ereignisse. Diese Ereignisse sind identisch zu den Daten,
die von MIDI-Ports auf einem Synthesizer geliefert werden,
jedoch mit einem Unterschied:
Vor dem Midi-Ereignis steht eine Delta-Zeit. Eine Delta-Zeit gibt die Anzahl
an Ticks an, nach denen ein Midi-Ereignis ausgeführt werden soll.

Die Anzahl der Ticks pro Viertelnote wurde vorher im Datei-Header festgelegt.
Diese Delta-Zeit ist ein Variablen-Längen-Verschlüsselter-Wert :).

Dieses Format kann zwar verwirren, hat aber den Vorteil, dass keine kleinen
Zahlen benötigt werden, die sinnlos Bytes verschwenden.

Die Zahl wird konvertiert in ein 7-bit-Byte, wobei das höherwertige Bit jedes
Bytes "1" beträgt, bis auf das letzte Byte der Nummer, das ein MSB
(Most Significant Bit = Höherwertiges Bit [ganz links]) von 0 hat.

Wenn ein MSB = 0 erscheint, muss dies das letzte Byte der Nummer gewesen sein.

Die Delta-Zeit ist mindestens 4 Bytes lang. Darauf folgt ein Midi-Ereignis.
Jedes MIDI-Ereignis besitzt ein Kommandobyte, dass ein MSB von 1 besitzt
(der Wert ist dann >=128).
Eine Liste für viele dieser Kommandos befindet sich in Anhang A.
Jedes Kommando hat verschiedene Parameter und Längen. Aber die Daten, die dann
folgen, haben immer ein MSB von 0 (<128).
Die Ausnahme hierzu ist ein Meta-Ereignis, die Daten mit einem MSB von 1 haben.
Wie auch immer, Meta-Ereignisse benötigen einen Längenparameter,
die Verwirrung vermeiden sollen.

Eine Feinheit, die für Verwirrung sorgen kann, ist der sog. "running mode".
Das passiert, wenn das aktuelle Midi-Kommando weggelassen wird.
Das heißt, dass das MIDI-Ereignis aus einer Delta-Zeit und ein einem Parameter,
der zu dem Kommando leiten würde, währe dieses einbezogen, besteht :).


4. Ende
-------
Die Anhänge enthalten Beispiele, die dem besseren Verständnis dienen sollten.



Anhang A: Midi-Ereignis Kommandos
---------------------------------
jedes MIDI-Kommando hat zwei Teile. Der linke Nibble (Ein Nibble = 4 Bit)
enthält das Kommando und rechte Nibble enthält den Kanal auf welchem das
Kommando ausgeführt werden soll.
Es gibt 16 Midi-Kanäle und 8 Midi-Kommandos (Kommandonibble hat MSB = 1).
In der folgenden Tabelle gibt "x" den Kanal an.

Hex   ! Binär      ! Daten   ! Beschreibung
--------+---------------+-------+---------------------
   !      !   ! Note aus
&8x   ! 1000xxxx   ! nn vv   ! nn=Noten-Nummer
   !      !   ! vv=Geschwindigkeit
--------+---------------+-------+---------------------
   !      !   ! Note an
&9x   ! 1001xxxx   ! nn vv   ! nn=Noten-Nummer
   !      !   ! vv=Geschwindigkeit
--------+---------------+-------+---------------------
   !      !   ! Noten-Abklingen
&Ax   ! 1010xxxx   ! nn vv   ! nn=Note
   !      !   ! vv=Geschwindikkeit
--------+---------------+-------+---------------------
   !      !   ! Kontrolländerung
Bx   ! 1011xxxx   ! cc vv   ! cc=Kontrollnummer
   !      !   ! vv=Neuer Wert
--------+---------------+-------+---------------------
Cx   ! 1101xxxx   ! cc   ! Kanalausklang
   !      !   ! cc=Kanalnummer
--------+---------------+-------+---------------------
   !      !   ! Tonhöhenänderung
Ex   ! 1110xxxx   ! bb tt   ! bb=Boden
   !      !   ! tt=Höchster Wert
--------+---------------+-------+---------------------



Die folgende Tabelle zeigt Meta-Ereignisse, die keine Midi-Kanal-Nummer haben.
Sie haben folgendes Format:

&FF &xx &nn &dd

Alle Meta-Ereignisse starten mit &FF(255), gefolgt vom Kommando (xx), der Länge
oder Anzahl an Bytes, die die Daten enthalten (nn) und den Daten (dd) selbst.

Hex   ! Binär      ! Daten      ! Beschreibung
--------+---------------+---------------+--------------------------------------
   !      !      ! Setzt die Sequenz der Spur
&00   ! 00000000   ! nn ssss   ! nn=02 (Länge d. 2-Byte Sequenznummer)
   !      !      ! ssss=Sequenznummer
--------+---------------+---------------+--------------------------------------
   !      !      ! Text
&01   ! 00000001   ! nn tt ..   ! nn=Länge in Bytes des Textes
   !      !      ! tt=eigentlicher Text
--------+---------------+---------------+--------------------------------------
   !      !      ! Das gleiche wie "Text", aber benutzt
&02   ! 00000010   ! nn tt ..   ! als Copyright-info.
   !      !      ! nn tt=genauso wie im Textereignis
--------+---------------+---------------+--------------------------------------
&03   ! 00000011   ! nn tt ..   ! Sequenz oder Spurenname
   !      !      ! nn tt=genauso wie im Textereignis
--------+---------------+---------------+--------------------------------------
&04   ! 00000100   ! nn tt ..   ! Spuren-Instrumenten-Name
   !      !      ! nn tt=genauso wie im Textereignis
--------+---------------+---------------+--------------------------------------
&05   ! 00000101   ! nn tt ..   ! Lyrik
   !      !      ! nn tt=genauso wie im Textereignis
--------+---------------+---------------+--------------------------------------
&06   ! 00000110   ! nn tt ..   ! Marker
   !      !      ! nn tt=genauso wie im Textereignis
--------+---------------+---------------+--------------------------------------
&07   ! 00000111   ! nn tt ..   ! Hinweis
   !      !      ! nn tt=genauso wie im Textereignis
--------+---------------+---------------+--------------------------------------
&2F   ! 00101111   ! 00      ! Dieses Ereignis muss am Ende
   !      !      ! jeder Spur kommen
--------+---------------+---------------+--------------------------------------
&51   ! 01010001   ! 03 tttttt   ! Neues Tempo
   !      !      ! tttttt=mikrosekunden/Viertelnote
--------+---------------+---------------+--------------------------------------
   !      !      ! Zeit Signatur ("Notenschlüssel")
   !      !      ! nn=Zähler der Zeitsignatur
   !      !      ! dd=Nenner der Zeitsignatur
&58   ! 01011000   ! 04 nn dd ccbb   !    2=viertel
   !      !      !    3=achtel, usw.
   !      !      ! cc=Anzahl Ticks in einem
   !      !      !    Metronomschlag
   !      !      ! bb=Anzahl 32tel-Noten zu einer
   !      !      !    Viertelnode
--------+---------------+---------------+--------------------------------------
&59   ! 01011001   ! 02 sf mi   ! Feinabstimmung
   !      !      ! sf=(>128)Ton erhöhen/(<128) Ton
   !      !      !    niedersetzen (7=7 sharps)
   !      !      ! mi=hoch/tief (0=hoch, 1=tief)
--------+---------------+---------------+--------------------------------------
&7F   ! 01111111   ! xx dd ..   ! Sequenzinformationen
   !      !      ! xx=Anzahl an zu sendenden Bytes
   !      !      ! dd=Daten
--------+---------------+---------------+--------------------------------------



Die folgende Tabelle zeigt Kommando-Nummern für die Systemnachichten.
Es handelt sich um Ein- und Ausschaltbefehle. Zur Kontrolle sozusagen.

Sie haben keine MIDI-Kanal-Nummer. (Normalerweise kommen sie nur vor,
um ein KeyBoard zu kontrollieren usw.)

Hex   ! Binär      ! Daten   ! Beschreibung
--------+---------------+-------+----------------------------------------------
&F8   ! 11111000   !   -   ! Pause, falls Synchronisation notwendig ist
&FA   ! 11111010   !   -   ! Starte Sequenz
&FB   ! 11111011   !   -   ! Spiele gestoppte Sequenz weiter
&FC   ! 11111100   !   -   ! Sequenz anhalten



Die folgende Tabelle zeigt, welche Nummern für welche Noten stehen

Oktave||                     Notennummer
   #  ||
      || C   | C#  | D   | D#  | E   | F   | F#  | G   | G#  | A   | A#  | B
------++-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
   0  ||   0 |   1 |   2 |   3 |   4 |   5 |   6 |   7 |   8 |   9 |  10 | 11
   1  ||  12 |  13 |  14 |  15 |  16 |  17 |  18 |  19 |  20 |  21 |  22 | 23
   2  ||  24 |  25 |  26 |  27 |  28 |  29 |  30 |  31 |  32 |  33 |  34 | 35
   3  ||  36 |  37 |  38 |  39 |  40 |  41 |  42 |  43 |  44 |  45 |  46 | 47
   4  ||  48 |  49 |  50 |  51 |  52 |  53 |  54 |  55 |  56 |  57 |  58 | 59
   5  ||  60 |  61 |  62 |  63 |  64 |  65 |  66 |  67 |  68 |  69 |  70 | 71
   6  ||  72 |  73 |  74 |  75 |  76 |  77 |  78 |  79 |  80 |  81 |  82 | 83
   7  ||  84 |  85 |  86 |  87 |  88 |  89 |  90 |  91 |  92 |  93 |  94 | 95
   8  ||  96 |  97 |  98 |  99 | 100 | 101 | 102 | 103 | 104 | 105 | 106 | 107
   9  || 108 | 109 | 110 | 111 | 112 | 113 | 114 | 115 | 116 | 117 | 118 | 119
  10  || 120 | 121 | 122 | 123 | 124 | 125 | 126 | 127 |
------++-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----



QUELLEN
-------
- "MIDI Systems and Control" Francis Rumsey 1990 Focal Press

- "MIDI and Sound Book for the Atari ST" Bernd Enders and Wolfgang Klemme
  1989 M&T Publishing, Inc.







--------------------- ORIGINAL-TEXT ------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------

                           Standard MIDI File Format
                                Dustin Caldwell

      The standard MIDI file format is a very strange beast. When viewed as a
whole, it can be quite overwhelming. Of course, no matter how you look at it,
describing a piece of music in enough detail to be able to reproduce it
accurately is no small task. So, while complicated, the structure of the midi
file format is fairly intuitive when understood.
      I must insert a disclaimer here that I am by no means an expert with
midi nor midi files. I recently obtained a Gravis UltraSound board for my PC,
and upon hearing a few midi files (.MID) thought, "Gee, I'd like to be able to
make my own .MID files." Well, many aggravating hours later, I discovered that
this was no trivial task. But, I couldn't let a stupid file format stop me.
(besides, I once told my wife that computers aren't really that hard to use,
and I'd hate to be a hypocrite) So if any errors are found in this
information, please let me know and I will fix it. Also, this document's scope
does not extend to EVERY type of midi command and EVERY possible file
configuration. It is a basic guide that should enable the reader (with a
moderate investment in time) to generate a quality midi file.

1. Overview

      A midi (.MID) file contains basically 2 things, Header chunks and Track
chunks. Section 2 explains the header chunks, and Section 3 explains the track
chunks. A midi file contains ONE header chunk describing the file format,
etc., and any number of track chunks. A track may be thought of in the same
way as a track on a multi-track tape deck. You may assign one track to each
voice, each staff, each instrument or whatever you want.

2. Header Chunk

      The header chunk appears at the beginning of the file, and describes the
file in three ways. The header chunk always looks like:

4D 54 68 64 00 00 00 06 ff ff nn nn dd dd

The ascii equivalent of the first 4 bytes is MThd. After MThd comes the 4-byte
size of the header. This will always be 00 00 00 06, because the actual header
information will always be 6 bytes.

ff ff is the file format. There are 3 formats:

0 - single-track
1 - multiple tracks, synchronous
2 - multiple tracks, asynchronous

Single track is fairly self-explanatory - one track only. Synchronous multiple
tracks means that the tracks will all be vertically synchronous, or in other
words, they all start at the same time, and so can represent different parts
in one song. Asynchronous multiple tracks do not necessarily start at the same
time, and can be completely asynchronous.

nn nn is the number of tracks in the midi file.

dd dd is the number of delta-time ticks per quarter note. (More about this
later)


3. Track Chunks

The remainder of the file after the header chunk consists of track chunks.
Each track has one header and may contain as many midi commands as you like.
The header for a track is very similar to the one for the file:

4D 54 72 6B xx xx xx xx

As with the header, the first 4 bytes has an ascii equivalent. This one is
MTrk. The 4 bytes after MTrk give the length of the track (not including the
track header) in bytes.
      Following the header are midi events. These events are identical to the
actual data sent and received by MIDI ports on a synth with one addition. A
midi event is preceded by a delta-time. A delta time is the number of ticks
after which the midi event is to be executed. The number of ticks per quarter
note was defined previously in the file header chunk. This delta-time is a
variable-length encoded value. This format, while confusing, allows large
numbers to use as many bytes as they need, without requiring small numbers to
waste bytes by filling with zeros. The number is converted into 7-bit bytes,
and the most-significant bit of each byte is 1 except for the last byte of the
number, which has a msb of 0. This allows the number to be read one byte at a
time, and when you see a msb of 0, you know that it was the last (least
significant) byte of the number. According to the MIDI spec, the entire delta-
time should be at most 4 bytes long.
      Following the delta-time is a midi event. Each midi event (except a
running midi event) has a command byte which will always have a msb of 1 (the
value will be >= 128). A list of most of these commands is in appendix A. Each
command has different parameters and lengths, but the data that follows the
command will have a msb of 0 (less than 128). The exception to this is a meta-
event, which may contain data with a msb of 1. However, meta-events require a
length parameter which alleviates confusion.
      One subtlety which can cause confusion is running mode. This is where
the actual midi command is omitted, and the last midi command issued is
assumed. This means that the midi event will consist of a delta-time and the
parameters that would go to the command if it were included.

4. Conclusion

      If this explanation has only served to confuse the issue more, the
appendices contain examples which may help clarify the issue. Also, 2
utilities and a graphic file should have been included with this document:

DEC.EXE - This utility converts a binary file (like .MID) to a tab-delimited
text file containing the decimal equivalents of each byte.

REC.EXE - This utility converts a tab-delimited text file of decimal values
into a binary file in which each byte corresponds to one of the decimal
values.

MIDINOTE.PS - This is the postscript form of a page showing note numbers with
a keyboard and with the standard grand staff.
                                                                          Appendix A

1. MIDI Event Commands

Each command byte has 2 parts. The left nybble (4 bits) contains the actual
command, and the right nybble contains the midi channel number on which the
command will be executed. There are 16 midi channels, and 8 midi commands (the
command nybble must have a msb of 1).
In the following table, x indicates the midi channel number. Note that all
data bytes will be <128 (msb set to 0).

Hex      Binary       Data          Description
8x       1000xxxx     nn vv         Note off (key is released)
                                    nn=note number
                                    vv=velocity

9x       1001xxxx     nn vv         Note on (key is pressed)
                                    nn=note number
                                    vv=velocity

Ax       1010xxxx     nn vv         Key after-touch
                                    nn=note number
                                    vv=velocity

Bx       1011xxxx     cc vv         Control Change
                                    cc=controller number
                                    vv=new value

Cx       1100xxxx     pp            Program (patch) change
                                    pp=new program number

Dx       1101xxxx     cc            Channel after-touch
                                    cc=channel number

Ex       1110xxxx     bb tt         Pitch wheel change (2000H is normal or no
                                    change)
                                    bb=bottom (least sig) 7 bits of value
                                    tt=top (most sig) 7 bits of value
The following table lists meta-events which have no midi channel number. They
are of the format:

FF xx nn dd

All meta-events start with FF followed by the command (xx), the length, or
number of bytes that will contain data (nn), and the actual data (dd).

Hex      Binary       Data          Description
00       00000000     nn ssss       Sets the track's sequence number.
                                    nn=02 (length of 2-byte sequence number)
                                    ssss=sequence number

01       00000001     nn tt ..      Text event- any text you want.
                                    nn=length in bytes of text
                                    tt=text characters

02       00000010     nn tt ..      Same as text event, but used for
                                    copyright info.
                                    nn tt=same as text event

03       00000011     nn tt ..      Sequence or Track name
                                    nn tt=same as text event

04       00000100     nn tt ..      Track instrument name
                                    nn tt=same as text event

05       00000101     nn tt ..      Lyric
                                    nn tt=same as text event

06       00000110     nn tt ..      Marker
                                    nn tt=same as text event

07       00000111     nn tt ..      Cue point
                                    nn tt=same as text event

2F       00101111     00            This event must come at the end of each
                                    track

51       01010001     03 tttttt     Set tempo
                                    tttttt=microseconds/quarter note

58       01011000     04 nn dd ccbb Time Signature
                                    nn=numerator of time sig.
                                    dd=denominator of time sig. 2=quarter
                                    3=eighth, etc.
                                    cc=number of ticks in metronome click
                                    bb=number of 32nd notes to the quarter
                                    note

59       01011001     02 sf mi      Key signature
                                    sf=sharps/flats (-7=7 flats, 0=key of C,
                                    7=7 sharps)
                                    mi=major/minor (0=major, 1=minor)

7F       01111111     xx dd ..      Sequencer specific information
                                    xx=number of bytes to be sent
                                    dd=data
The following table lists system messages which control the entire system.
These have no midi channel number. (these will generally only apply to
controlling a midi keyboard, etc.)

Hex      Binary       Data          Description
F8       11111000                   Timing clock used when synchronization is
                                    required.

FA       11111010                   Start current sequence

FB       11111011                   Continue a stopped sequence where left
                                    off

FC       11111100                   Stop a sequence


The following table lists the numbers corresponding to notes for use in note
on and note off commands.


Octave||                     Note Numbers
   #  ||
      || C   | C#  | D   | D#  | E   | F   | F#  | G   | G#  | A   | A#  | B
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
   0  ||   0 |   1 |   2 |   3 |   4 |   5 |   6 |   7 |   8 |   9 |  10 | 11
   1  ||  12 |  13 |  14 |  15 |  16 |  17 |  18 |  19 |  20 |  21 |  22 | 23
   2  ||  24 |  25 |  26 |  27 |  28 |  29 |  30 |  31 |  32 |  33 |  34 | 35
   3  ||  36 |  37 |  38 |  39 |  40 |  41 |  42 |  43 |  44 |  45 |  46 | 47
   4  ||  48 |  49 |  50 |  51 |  52 |  53 |  54 |  55 |  56 |  57 |  58 | 59
   5  ||  60 |  61 |  62 |  63 |  64 |  65 |  66 |  67 |  68 |  69 |  70 | 71
   6  ||  72 |  73 |  74 |  75 |  76 |  77 |  78 |  79 |  80 |  81 |  82 | 83
   7  ||  84 |  85 |  86 |  87 |  88 |  89 |  90 |  91 |  92 |  93 |  94 | 95
   8  ||  96 |  97 |  98 |  99 | 100 | 101 | 102 | 103 | 104 | 105 | 106 | 107
   9  || 108 | 109 | 110 | 111 | 112 | 113 | 114 | 115 | 116 | 117 | 118 | 119
  10  || 120 | 121 | 122 | 123 | 124 | 125 | 126 | 127 |


                                BIBLIOGRAPHY

  "MIDI Systems and Control" Francis Rumsey  1990 Focal Press

  "MIDI and Sound Book for the Atari ST" Bernd Enders and Wolfgang Klemme
          1989 M&T Publishing, Inc.



------------------------------- DEC.CPP ------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------

/*  file  dec.cpp

by  Dustin Caldwell    (dustin@gse.utah.edu)

*/


#include
#include
#include

void helpdoc();

main()
{
        FILE *fp;

        unsigned char ch, c;

        if((fp=fopen(_argv[1], "rb"))==NULL)            /* open file to read */
        {
                printf("cannot open file %s\n",_argv[1]);
                helpdoc();
                exit(-1);
        }

        c=0;
        ch=fgetc(fp);

        while(!feof(fp))                        /* loop for whole file */
        {
                printf("%u\t", ch);             /* print every byte's decimal equiv. */
                c++;
                if(c>8)                                 /* print 8 numbers to a line */
                {
                        c=0;
                        printf("\n");
                }

                ch=fgetc(fp);
        }

        fclose(fp);                     /* close up */
}

void helpdoc()                  /* print help message */
{
        printf("\n   Binary File Decoder\n\n");

        printf("\n Syntax:  dec binary_file_name\n\n");

        printf("by Dustin Caldwell  (dustin@gse.utah.edu)\n\n");
        printf("This is a filter program that reads a binary file\n");
        printf("and prints the decimal equivalent of each byte\n");
        printf("tab-separated. This is mostly useful when piped \n");
        printf("into another file to be edited manually.  eg:\n\n");
        printf("c:\>dec sonata3.mid > son3.txt\n\n");
        printf("This will create a file called son3.txt which can\n");
        printf("be edited with any ascii editor. \n\n");
        printf("(rec.exe may also be useful, as it reencodes the \n");
        printf("ascii text file).\n\n");
        printf("Have Fun!!\n");
}

---------------------------- REC.CPP ----------------------------------

/*  File  rec.cpp
        by Dustin Caldwell   (dustin@gse.utah.edu)
*/

#include
#include
#include
#include

void helpdoc();

main()
{
        FILE *rfp, *wfp;

        unsigned char ch, c;
        char s[20];

        if((rfp=fopen(_argv[1], "r"))==NULL)                    /* open the read file */
        {
                printf("cannot open file %s \n",_argv[1]);
                helpdoc();
                exit(-1);
        }

        if((wfp=fopen(_argv[2], "wb"))==NULL)                   /* open the write file */
        {
                printf("cannot open file %s \n",_argv[1]);
                helpdoc();
                exit(-1);
        }

        c=0;

        ch=fgetc(rfp);

        while(!feof(rfp))                       /* loop for whole file */
        {

                if(isalnum(ch))                 /* only 'see' valid ascii chars */
                {
                        c=0;
                        while(isdigit(ch))      /* only use decimal digits (0-9) */
                        {
                                s[c]=ch;        /* build a string containing the number */
                                c++;
                                ch=fgetc(rfp);
                        }
                        s[c]=NULL;                      /* must have NULL terminator */

                        fputc(atoi(s), wfp);/* write the binary equivalent to file */

                }

                ch=fgetc(rfp);                  /* loop until next number starts */


        }

        fclose(rfp);                    /* close up */
        fclose(wfp);
}


void helpdoc()          /* print help message */
{
        printf("\n   Text File Encoder\n\n");

        printf("\n Syntax:  rec text_file_name binary_file_name\n\n");

        printf("by Dustin Caldwell  (dustin@gse.utah.edu)\n\n");
        printf("This is a program that reads an ascii tab-\n");
        printf("delimited file and builds a binary file where\n");
        printf("each byte of the binary file is one of the decimal\n");
        printf("digits in the text file.\n");
        printf(" eg:\n\n");
        printf("c:\>rec son3.txt son3.mid\n\n");
        printf("(This will create a file called son3.mid which is\n");
        printf("a valid binary file)\n\n");
        printf("(dec.exe may also be useful, as it decodes binary files)\n\n");
        printf("Have Fun!!\n");
}



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